A scapular is a
sacramental that looks like two small pieces of wool cloth connected by
string that is worn over the neck, either under or over one's clothing
(typically under the clothing), such that one piece of cloth hangs over
the chest, and the second piece of cloth hangs over the back (see
picture below). They derive from the scapulars which make up part of
monastics' religious habits -- that ankle-length (front and back),
shoulder-wide, apron-like part of the habit that basically consists of
a long rectangular piece of material with a hole for the head (some of
them have hoods and some had ties under the arms). Monastic scapulars
came, over time, to be called jugum Christi (the yoke of
Christ), and receiving the scapular (becoming "invested") took on
solemn meaning. Abbreviated forms of the full monastic scapulars were
to be worn even at night.
In addition to regular monastics of the First Order (i.e.,
friars) and Second Order (cloistered nuns), laity attached themselves
to various religious orders, too, in
what are called "Third Orders." Some lay
members of Third orders -- "tertiaries" -- are "Third Order Religious"
who live in a monastic community and generally take vows; most others
are "Third Order Secular" who live in the world and generally make
solemn promises. In the beginning, many of these lay people were
invested with the full habit; later, they came to wear only the very
small scapulars, as seen at left, under their clothing.
In addition to these Third Orders, Confraternities of lay-people
(married or single -- just "regular Catholics") developed whose members
were invested with Scapulars of Religious Orders to which they were
attached. It is these scapulars for lay people belonging to a
Confraternity or a Third Order that one generally thinks of when one
hears the word "scapular."
Some scapulars have privileges and indulgences attached to wearing
them, but like any sacramental (holy water, blessed candles, etc.), scapulars are not magic;
their efficacy depends on the proper intentions and faith of the
wearer. Only by following through on the promises one makes when
becoming invested can the benefits associated with them be had. They
are best thought of as signs of a commitment to do certain things and
of one's being a part of a religious community. They act as reminders,
too, of these things they signify and of the Saints who are parts of
the religious community in question. They are reminders to behave with
How Get and Use Them
The first thing
you need to do is to find out if enrollment in a particular
Confraternity is necessary before wearing one with the rightful
expectation of spiritual benefit. This varies with the type of
scapular, but most scapulars do not require any sort of enrollment that
your parish priest can't handle for you.
You can buy scapulars from Catholic Gift Shops, Catholic mail order
catalogues, etc. They're very inexpensive, and you can also often find
free ones from various places, such as the religious Order with which
the desired scapular is associated or from charitable organizations and
souls who make them available. Just do a Google Search for "Free Scapulars." Know, though,
that free scapulars are often poorly made, are not made of wool, and
are not of traditional design. It is best if you can find a traditional
source for your scapulars, especially the Brown Scapular, which must be
made of wool.
After you get your scapular, you must have it blessed by a
After it's been blessed, you then become "invested" when the priest
recites certain prayers (different scapulars have different prayers for
investement). Many scapulars do not require investment at all, but
simply need to be blessed -- as do all scapulars -- and then used
properly per the directions below.
You only need to have your first scapular blessed; it it
wears out and you need to replace it, the blessing "transfers" to
replacements. (The proper way to get rid of worn out scapulars -- or any
sacramental -- is to either burn it or bury it.)
Scapulars (excepting those which are proper to the Third
Orders) can also later be replaced by a religious medal called the
"Scapular Medal" (see picture at right), but if this is done, the new
medal must be blessed. This medal must "show the image of Our Most Holy
Redeemer, Jesus Christ, showing His Sacred Heart,
and the obverse that of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary," according to a
decree of Pope St. Pius X. 1
Below are some of the different types of scapulars. The religious
Orders they are associated with and the date of the scapular's origin
appear in italics under the Scapular's popular name.
Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Carmelites)
Scapular of our Lady of Mount Carmel," associated with the Carmelite
Order, is the most well-known. In A.D. 16 July 1251, Our Lady appeared
to St. Simon Stock in Cambridge, England after he prayed for help for
his Order. She appeared to him with the scapular and said, "Take,
beloved son this scapular of thy order as a badge of my confraternity
and for thee and all Carmelites a special sign of grace; whoever dies
in this garment, will not suffer everlasting fire. It is the sign of
salvation, a safeguard in dangers, a pledge of peace and of the
Whether this happened exactly in this way or not (St. Simon's
original descriptions of the vision are not extant and the wording may
not be exact), the Scapular was given to St. Simon Stock, and the
devotion spread and was well-known by the 16th c. What can be safely
believed because of papal decree is the promise known as the "Sabbatine
Privilege." The Sabbatine Privilege is the promise that Our Lady will
intercede and pray for those in Purgatory who, in earthly life:
- wore the
Scapular in good faith always (it can be taken off to bathe);
- were chaste
according to their state in life;
- daily recited
the Divine Office or, with the permission of one's Confessor, the
Little Office of Our Lady [a shorter form of the Divine Office in honor
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, used by certain religious orders and laity.
It is similar to the Common of the Blessed Virgin Mary from the Roman
Breviary] or the Rosary; and
- departed earthly
life in charity.
You can be
enrolled in the Confraternity of our Lady of Mount Carmel by any
priest. Just obtain a scapular, take it to him to have it blessed, and
express your desire for enrollment.
Warning: Some falsely believe that wearing the Brown Scapular
offers some sort of guarantee of salvation because of the words said by
Our Lady to St. Simon. This is against Church teaching, is
superstitious and a grave error. Sacramentals are not magical ways
to manipulate God; they are Church-instituted rituals/objects that
remind us of what we are supposed to be doing/thinking of, that depend
on the faith, hope and love of the user, and which help prepare us to
receive God's saving grace. One must do more than "wear the scapular";
one must wear it worthily.
Clerics Regular (Theatines)
Scapular of the Immaculate Conception" originated with the foundress of
the Theatine Order of nuns, Venerable Ursula Benicasa. To her, Christ
promised favor to that Order and she asked Him to extend those promises
to those who associated themselves with the Order through the faithful
wearing of the Scapular. The Blue Scapular is worn for the conversion
Enrollment in the Theatine Confraternity is necessary for investment
with this scapular.
Priests of the Mission (Lazarists)
Scapular of the Passion" came about when a Sister of Charity of St.
Vincent de Paul had a vision of Christ in 1846 in which He promised an
increase in the theological virtues (Faith, Hope, and Charity) of those
who wore the scapular faithfully and contemplated His Passion. One side
of the scapular shows Christ on the Cross, with the words, ""Holy
Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ Save us"; the other side shows the
Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of His mother with the
words, "Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary, protect us."
Pope Pius IX granted the Priests of the Mission ("Lazarists") the
faculty of investing the faithful with this scapular, and the Superior
General of the Lazarists may allow other priests this faculty.
Order of Friar Servants of Mary (Servites)
Scapular of the Seven Dolors of Mary," or "The Our Lady of Sorrows
Scapular," has on its front a depiction of Our Lady of Sorrows. Our
Lady appeared to seven rich and prominent citizens of Florence who
decided to give up their worldly possessions and follow Christ,
promising to honor His Mother in her
sorrows. Thus began the Servite Order. Mary gave them the Servite
habit and said that "these garments shall be to you a perpetual memory
of the sufferings of my heart." This is the more common Black Scapular.
The General of the Servite Order may grant the faculty of investment
with this scapular to other priests.
Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus
ca. A.D. 1720
St. Paul of the
Cross, before founding the Congregation of the Passionists, received in
apparitions the black habit of the order with the badge on the breast.
Later, after the foundation of the congregation, the Passionist Fathers
gave the faithful who wished to associate themselves more closely with
their order a black scapular in honour of the Passion of Christ. "The
Black Scapular of the Passion" has a replica of the emblem worn on the
habits of the Passionists. It includes the words "Jesu XPI Passio" and
below "sit semper in cordibus nostris."
The Superior General of the Passionists may grant to other priests the
faculty to bless and invest someone with this scapular.
Order of the Most Holy Trinity (Trinitarians)
"The Scapular of
the Most Blessed Trinity" is the badge of the members and tertiaries of
the Confraternity of The Most Blessed Trinity. Its front depicts a red
and blue Cross, and it first came about in 1193 or 1194 when a French
priest, John of Matha, had a vision of an Christ and two captives, one
of whom held a staff with a blue and red Cross on the top (this Cross
design came to be on the habit of the Trinitarian Order). This Scapular
was first used for the purposes of of increasing action to "ransom the
captives" -- the Christians taken prisoner by Muslims.
The Provincial of the Trinitarians and those whom he delegates may
grant the faculty of investment with this scapular to other priests.
Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul (Paulists)
In 1840, Mary
appeared to Sister Justine Bisqueyburu (a Seminary Sister of the
Daughters of Charity) in Paris, France and commended the Green Scapular
to her. It's known as "the Scapular of Conversion," and its promises
are the strengthening of faith, protection against Satan, a happy death
for Catholics, and, most of all, for conversion for those outside
the Church. It's to be worn or carried by the faithful, or given to
an unbeliever for their conversion. The following prayer is to be said
daily by the wearer:
of Mary, pray for us now and at the hour of our death
Cor immaculatum Mariae, ora pro nobis nunc et in hora mortis nostrae
If the scapular
is given to an unbeliever for their conversion, the person giving the
scapular prays the prayer for them if the unbeliever does not want to
pray the prayer himself. If the unbeliever does not want the scapular,
it may be hidden in their vicinity and the prayers said for him.
Enrollment in a Confraternity is not necessary for this scapular, but
the scapular should be blessed by a priest before use.
of St. Joseph
A gold and
violet-colored scapular with a white cord, the front shows St. Joseph holding the child Jesus in one
arm and a staff of lillies on the other. Underneath are the words, "St.
Joseph, patron of the Church, pray for us." On the back of the scapular
are the papal crown under a dove as the symbol of the Holy Ghost.
Underneath those are the Cross, the keys of Peter, and the inscription:
"Spiritus Domini ductor eius" (The Spirit of the Lord is his Guide).
The scapular is to remind us of St. Joseph's virtues (humility,
modesty, purity); to remind us to pray to St. Joseph, asking him to
pray for the Church; and to assist the dying since St. Joseph is the
patron of a happy death.
In addition to the above benefits, there is a plenary indulgence for
those who confess, receive Holy Communion and pray for the intentions
of the Holy Father on the following feast days: 25 December the day of
investment of the scapular), 1 January, 6 January, 2 February, 19
March, 25 March, Easter, Feast of the Ascension, 15 August, 8
September, 8 December, 3rd Sunday after Easter and at the time of
death. It is recommended also to say 5 Our Fathers, 5 Hail Marys and 5
Glorias before the Blessed Sacrament at these times.
Scapular is made of 5 of the following Scapulars above: first, the "The
Red Scapular of the Passion," then the "The Scapular of the Most
Blessed Trinity," the "The Brown Scapular of our Lady of Mount Carmel,"
the "The Black Scapular of the Seven Dolors of Mary," and the The Blue
Scapular of the Immaculate Conception." Any priest can invest you with
1 The document from Pius X
which introduced the Scapular Medal:
December 16, 1910
For the future all the faithful already inscribed or who shall be
inscribed in one or other of the real Scapulars approved by the Holy
See (excepting those which are proper to the Third Orders) by what is
known as regular enrollment may, instead of the cloth scapulars, one or
several, wear on their persons, either round the neck or otherwise,
provided it be in a becoming manner, a single medal of metal, through
which, by the observance of laws laid down for each scapular, they
shall be enabled to share in and gain all the spiritual favors (not
excepting what is known as the Sabbatine Privilege of the Scapular of
Our Lady of Mount Carmel), and all the privileges attached to each.
The right side of this medal must show the image of Our Most Holy
Redeemer, Jesus Christ, showing His Sacred Heart, and the obverse that
of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary. It must be blessed with a separate
blessing for each of the scapulars in which the person has been
enrolled and for which the wearer wishes it to suffice. Finally, these
separate blessings may be given by a single sign of the cross (unico
crucis signo), whether in the act of enrollment or later at the
convenience of those enrolled, it matters not how long after the
enrollment or in what order they may have taken place; the blessing may
be given by a priest other than the one who made the enrollment, as
long as he possesses the faculty, ordinary, or delegated, of blessing
the different scapulars- the limitations, clauses, and conditions
attached to the faculty he uses still holding their force. All things
to the contrary, even those calling for special mention,
Holy Office, Rome, December 16, 1910
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