Apologia: The Fullness of Christian Truth

``Where the Bishop is, there let the multitude of believers be;
even as where Jesus is, there is the Catholic Church'' Ignatius of Antioch, 1st c. A.D

Feast of
St. Francis of Assisi


Perhaps, after Our Lady, the most beloved Saint of all time is St. Francis of Assisi, "il Poverello" (the Little Poor Man). His character twisted into that of an idiotic hippie, St. Francis's image hasn't fared well, so one must dig to find the truth about this glorious Saint.

He was born in Assisi in 1181 or 1182, the son of Pietro Bernardone, a wealthy cloth merchant, and his wife, Pica. Christened "Giovanni," his father -- most likely because of his fondness for France -- later changed his name to "Francesco" while Francis was still an infant.

He grew up to be not only handsome, but fun-loving, even frivolous due to his parents having spoiled him a bit. He dressed in fine clothes, loved feats of arms, and was lavish with money though, even then during his wild days, he had great compassion for the poor.

When he was twenty years old or so, he and his townsmen got involved with a skirmish with the townsmen of Perugia. The men of Assisi lost that battle, and Francis was taken prisoner. For a year he languished in a Perugian prison, becoming ill and, in his adversity, began to turn his thoughts to greater things. When his health returned and he was released, however, he put those greater things to the back of his mind and resolved to have a military career, but it is now that God began to intervene in interesting ways. He'd arranged to join with a local knight to take arms against the emperor, but the night before he was to leave, he had a dream of a long hall lined with armor, all of which was marked with a cross. A voice said, "These are for you and your soldiers," and Francis took it to mean he would be a great prince. He and the knight set off, but when they reached Spoleto, Francis became ill again and was told in another dream, by the same voice, to return to Assisi. He did. But he returned a different man, a more spiritual man who had less interest in the reveleries of his youth, and more interest in solitude and prayer.

He soon decided to "take a wife of surpassing fairness" -- "Lady Poverty" -- and began spending his wealth on the poor, the sick, and the Church. One day he was riding a horse across the plains of Umbria when he encountered a leper. He was naturally repelled, but the spirit of Christ overcame his repulsion, and he embraced the man, giving him all the money he had. He emptied his pockets again during a pilgrimage to Rome, when he saw the paucity of offerings left at St. Peter's tomb. After he did so, he exchanged his
fine clothes for the tattered rags of a beggar.

After returning to Assisi, he was praying one day in the Chapel of San Damiano, before an iconic Crucifix which has become known as the "San Damiano Crucifix."

While deep in prayer, he heard a voice say to him, "Go, Francis, and repair my house, which as you see is falling into ruin." He went to his father's shop, took expensive cloth, and sold it and his horse for the money to make literal repairs to the chapel. The chapel's priest wouldn't accept money gained in that manner, and Francis threw it at him in disdain. Francis's father was livid, so his son hid himself away in a nearby cave for a month, emerging squalid and emaciated. His appearance invited mockery, and he was tormented by locals until his father retrieved him, beat him, bound him, and imprisoned him in a closet. His mother freed him in his father's absence, and he returned to San Damiano where he found a a place to live with the priest's help. Francis's father, though, went to the city consuls to force his son to give up his inheritance, something Francis was very happy to do. He took off his clothes and handed them to his father with the words, "Hitherto I have called you my father on earth; henceforth I desire to say only 'Our Father Who art in Heaven.'" His embrace of Lady Poverty was almost complete.

He took to the hills of Assisi where he was confronted by a band of robbers. When asked who he was, he told them, "I am the herald of the great King!" whereupon they took what little he had and threw him into a snow bank. He emerged half frozen and crawled to a monastery where he stayed for a time, working in the kitchen.

From there he went to Gubbio, where a friend gave him the cloak, scrip, and staff of a pilgrim. He returned to Assisi and begged people for stones with which he could restore the chapel of San Damiano that he'd been commanded to repair. Stone by stone, with his own hands, he did rebuild it, and then went on to repair the Chapel of San Pietro outside the city, and the tiny chapel of the tiny town of Santa Maria degli Angeli (St. Mary of the Angels) below the city.

In 1208 he was attending Mass at that third chapel, in Santa Maria degli Angeli, and heard Our Lord's words as recounted in the tenth chapter of Matthew: "Do not possess gold, nor silver, nor money in your purses: Nor scrip for your journey, nor two coats, nor shoes, nor a staff; for the workman is worthy of his meat." He took these words literally and to heart, and immediately threw away his cloak, wallet, and staff. Now his embrace of Lady Poverty, the keystone of the Franciscan charism, was consummated, and he began to wear the coarse tunic made of wool, with a cincture made of a knotted rope. Instead of the mockery that had met him earlier, people began to listen and wonder, attracted by his peace and demeanor.

He acquired two disciples, the first among these being a town magnate, Bernard of Quintavalle, and the second being the canon of the cathedral, Peter of Cattaneo. They repaired the church of San Niccolo where Francis tried to determine God's will for them by three times randomly opening the Gospel that sat on the altar. Each time he did so, the passages he found recounted Christ's telling His disciples to leave all and follow Him. Taking this to be their rule of life, Bernard, and Peter began to wear habits like that of Francis, and built huts near his by the chapel of Santa Maria degli Angeli.

They were soon joined by a third man, Giles, and so were able to go two by two into the world and spread the message of Christ. The group grew from four to eleven, and it was at this point that Francis made his first written Rule and went to Rome for Pope Innocent III's approval of it so they could form an official religious order. Innocent is said to have rejected Francis at first, but then changed his mind after he had a dream in which he saw Francis holding up the St. John Lateran Basilica. In any case, Francis and his men returned to Assisi with the tonsure (Francis was ordained a deacon) and known as the "Friars Minor," the official name for the Franciscan Order. Their motto: "Pax et Bonum" (Peace and All Good).

In 1211, the Benedictines gave them the tiny chapel at Santa Maria degli Angeli which Francis had repaired earlier, along with the small tract of land (a "porziuncola") that surrounded it. This became the center of the Franciscan Order, and the small chapel came to be known as "the Porziuncola" 1 since then. There near the Porziuncola they built a few huts of wattle, straw, and mud which they surrounded by a hedge. From there, they would go out two by two, finding work where they could, and begging when there was no work to be found. More men joined up, including Brother Juniper -- the exasperating "renowned jester of the Lord" whose story is recounted in "The Little Flowers of St. Francis" -- and "the Three Companions" who later wrote about Francis's life: Angelus, Leo, and Rufinus, a cousin of St. Clare who was to meet up with St. Francis during Lent of 1212.

The eighteen-year old Clare, after hearing Francis preaching, was moved to beg to be allowed to follow his way of life. On Palm Sunday she secretly left her father's house and, with two friends, went to join up with the friars who met them bearing torches in a procession at the Porziuncola. Francis cut her hair, gave her a habit, and sent her to live with Benedictine nuns until the friars could build a convent for her. The Benedictines were kind enough to give him the Chapel of San Damiano, the first chapel Francis had repaired with his own hands, and the friars built a convent there to adjoin it. Clare and her Sisters -- who were then known as the "Order of Poor Ladies" but are now known as the "Poor Clares" -- made this their home.


SS. Francis and Clare, by Giotto

In Autumn of that same year, Francis's plan to go to Syria to convert the Saracens was spoiled when he was shipwrecked en route, off the coast of what is now Eastern Croatia and Western Serbia. He evangelized in central Italy before making another attempt to convert the infidels, this time in Morocco. But once again, he ran into trouble: he became quite ill and never made it out of Spain. Back to Italy he went, to preach and to convert souls. He became wildly popular, with crowds gathering where he went and falling under his spell. Once, while preaching in Camara, Italy, so many people wanted to join his order after hearing him preach that he decided to fashion a third order for laypeople.

In 1219, he made his third -- and this time successful -- attempt to encounter the infidels. He made it to Syria was taken prisoner, but used the opportunity to meet with the Sultan and attempt to convert him. Though he was unable to convince him of the Truth of Christ, he was able to get the Sultan to agree to treat the Christian prisoners of war better. 

Back in Italy, he had to spend time reorganizing his Order and re-writing his Rule, said Rule becoming known as the "Regula Bullata." In 1223, in Greccio, Italy, he was inspired by his love of Christmas to set up a nativity scene, a devotion that Catholics still practice to this day.

In 1224, he was given the great honor to bear the stigmata of Christ. The story is told by Thomas of Celano, in his biography of St. Francis -- Vita prima S. Francisci -- written in 1228-1229: 

Two years before Francis gave his soul back to heaven, while he was staying in a hermitage called "Alverna" after the place w here it was located, he saw in a vision from God a man with six wings like a seraph, standing above him with hands extended and feet together, affixed to a cross. Two wings were raised over his head, two were extended in flight, and two hid his entire body.

When the blessed servant of God saw these things he was filled with wonder, but he did not know w hat the vision meant. He rejoiced greatly in the benign and gracious expression with which he saw himself regarded by the seraph, whose beauty was indescribable; yet he was alarmed by the fact that the seraph was affixed to the cross and was suffering terribly. Thus Francis rose, one might say, sad and happy, joy and grief alternating in him. He wondered anxiously what this vision could mean, and his soul was uneasy as it searched for understanding. And as his understanding sought in vain for an explanation and his heart was filled with perplexity at the great novelty of this vision, the marks of nails began to appear in his hands and feet, just as he had seen them slightly earlier in the crucified man above him. His hands and feet seemed to be pierced by nails, with the heads of the nails appearing in the palms of his hands and on the upper sides of his feet, the points appearing on the other side. The marks were round on the palm of each hand but elongated on the other side, and small pieces of flesh jutting out from the rest took on the appearance of the nail-ends, bent and driven back. In the same way the marks of nails were impressed on his feet and projected beyond the rest of the flesh. Moreover, his right side had a large wound as if it had been pierced with a spear, and it often bled so that his tunic and trousers were soaked with his sacred blood.

Alas, how few were worthy of viewing the wound in the side of this crucified servant of the crucified Lord. How fortunate was Elias, who was worthy of seeing it while the holy man lived, but no less fortunate was Rufinus, who touched the wound with his own hands. For once, when the aforesaid brother Rufinus put his hand on the holy man's chest in order to rub him, his hand fell to his right side, as often occurs, and he happened to touch that precious wound. The holy man of God suffered great anguish from that touch and, pushing the hand away, he cried out to the Lord to forgive him.

He carefully hid the wound from outsiders and cautiously concealed it from those near him, so that even his most devoted followers and those who were constantly at his side knew nothing of it for a long time. And although the servant and friend of the most high saw himself adorned with many costly pearls as if with precious gems, and marvelously decked out beyond the glory and honor of other men, he did not become vain or seek to please anyone through desire for personal glory, but, lest human favor should steal away the grace given to him, he attempted to hide it in every way possible.

St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata, by Fra Angelico

His reception of the stigmata happed on September 17, during "St. Michael's Lent" -- a period of fasting which St. Francis voluntarily kept as a personal discipline, and which some Catholics still emulate, from the Feast of the Assumption (August 15) to the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel (September 29).

But at around this time, too, his body -- which he humorously referred to as "Brother Ass" -- began to betray him. Tubercolosis, dropsy, eyesight failing almost to the point of blindness, he knew his time was upon him. He went to the Chapel of San Damiano to vist St. Clare, and there, living in a little hut in the garden of the convent, wrote his "Canticle of the Sun." He then moved on to Assisi, to die in his beloved Porziuncola, surrounded by his brothers -- including a woman he deemed a brother, the Lady Jacoba whom he referred to as "Brother Jacoba." On Ocotber 3, 1226, they read to him the account of Christ's Passion from the Book of St. John, and then he recited Psalm 141. After praying the last verse, after having prayed, "Bring my soul out of prison," he died. The Catholic Encyclopedia tells us what happened next: 

...his body was, on 4 October, borne in triumphant procession to the city, a halt being made at St. Damian's, that St. Clare and her companions might venerate the sacred stigmata now visible to all, and it was placed provisionally in the church of St. George (now within the enclosure of the monastery of St. Clare), where the saint had learned to read and had first preached. Many miracles are recorded to have taken place at his tomb. Francis was canonized at St. George's by Gregory IX, 16 July, 1228.

The day after he was canonized, Pope Gregory IX started building a great church around the little porziuncula chapel and the cell in which St. Francis died. Pope Pius V, leaving the chapel and cell intact, tore down Pope Gregory's structure and built in its place a large basilica which still stands today. The little chapel, which is only 13 and a half feet wide and 22 feet long, became the place where one could receive the Portiuncula Indulgence, an indulgence which came about when St. Francis was praying in his chapel, "O God, although I am a great sinner, I beseech You to grant a full pardon of all sins to all who, having repented and confessed their sins, shall visit this church." and was answered wit the words, "Francis, you ask much, but you are worthy of greater things, and greater things you shall have." Pope Honorius III ratified it, letting it be known that anyone who, with a contrite heart, visited the chapel between the afternoon of August 1 and sunset of August 2 could receive a plenary indulgence.

This indulgence has been expanded many, many times throughout the centuries, and is now structured such that, on August 2, the faithful may receive a plenary indulgence, under the usual conditions, by 1) wanting to receive the indulgence, 2) visiting any parish church (though a Franciscan church is traditional, and the Portiuncula itself is the most traditional), 3) praying one Our Father, one Apostle's Creed, and one other prayer of the individual's choice, 4) praying for the Pope's intentions, 5) while being free from all sin (including venial sin), and 6) going to Confession and receiving the Eucharist within a week before or after.

Note that if you're ever able to visit the Portiuncula and go to its rose garden, you'll find a very interesting sort of rose. There, a type of dog rose3 grows, but this cultivar
(Rosa canina Assisiensis) has lost its thorns. This loss is said to have come about when St. Francis, in the spirit of mortification, threw himself naked into the rose bushes to subdue his flesh. God, not wanting him harmed, stripped the roses of their thorns then and there, and they've been growing that way ever since. Numerous sources say that the Portiuncula's rose garden is the only place in which these thornless dog roses grow.

St. Francis is the patron of Italy (along with St. Catherine of Siena), of ecology, and animals.


Some may prepare for this feast by praying a Novena to St. Francis starting on September 25 and ending on the eve of his feast (October 3). For his feast itself, there is the Litany of the Seraphic Father Saint Francis (but be warned; it contains some Latin at the end).

Because of his great love for God's creatures, today might bring the blessing of animals at your church. Spoil your pets today; give them an extra snack in honor of St. Francis!

As to music, there are lots of cheesy songs (and prayers, and books, and movies) in his honor (beware of the "hippie-fication" of St. Francis; it's truly terrible). But along with that sort of thing, which I refuse to include on this page, there are Cantico del sol di Francesco d'Assisi: and St. François d'Assise: La Prédication aux oiseaux (St. Francis of Assisi: Preaching to the Birds) by Franz Liszt who was, himself, a Third Order Franciscan:

As to foods, a sweet raisin bread is eaten in Italy on this day. A recipe:

Pagnotta dolce di San Francesco

4 (1/4 ounce) packages yeast
1 cup lukewarm water
1 teaspoon sugar
7 cups flour
1 1/2 cups raisins, soaked in water for 30 minutes, drained and patted dry
4 tablespoons olive oil
6 large eggs, room temperature
1 1/2 cups sugar
1 ounce anise flavoring (optional)
Zest of 1 lemon
Zest of 1 orange
1 dash salt

In a large bowl, dissolve yeast and sugar in lukewarm water. Separately, beat together the eggs and sugar. When yeast has foamed after 5 or 10 minutes, add the egg mixture to the yeast mixture. Add the anise, grated rinds, and salt.

In a big bowl, mix flour and raisins. Add yeast mixture to flour, mixing and blending to form a dough. Rub olive oil over dough and set covered in a warm place to rise. In about 2 hours, oil your hands, punch dough down the dough, and let rise again. After the second rise, divide dough into four pieces. Shape into loaved and place into 4 oiled bread loaf pans. Let rise to double in bulk. Bake at 350oF degrees 10 minutes. Loosely cover pans with foil, reduce heat to 300oF degrees and bake 20 minutes longer.

Catholics who live in Mexico or the Southwestern part of the United States might consider making a pilgrimage to the Nuestra Señora de la Purisima Concepcion church in the town of Real de Catorce, in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. Around the feast of St. Francis, pilgrimage is made there to ask for -- or in gratitude for -- miraclulous healings and other favors. The hundreds of a sort of ex-voto called retablos that can be seen in the church are testament to God's doings in response to prayer made there. While there in the days honoring St. Francis, there are religious processions, music, dancing, etc.

The stories concerning St. Francis were collected and put together by Brother Ugolino in the early 14th century, roughly seventy years after St. Francis died. The collection is referred to as "The Little Flowers of Saint Francis" (I Fioretti), and contains the stories of St. Francis  preaching to the birds (Chapter XVI), his interaction with the wolf at Gubbio (Chapter XXI), his taming the doves (Chapter XXII), etc. I present them here:
The Little Flowers of Saint Francis of Assisi.

Or download it and the following works in .pdf format from this site's Catholic library to learn more about the great St. Francis of Assisi:


The Bull of Canonization of St. Francis of Assisi

Pope Gregory IX, A.D. 1228

Given on the occasion of the canonization of St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226 A. D.) in 1228 A. D.

1. How wondrously considerate of us is God's pity! How priceless a love of charity which would sacrifice a Son to redeem a slave! God neither neglected the gifts of his mercy nor failed to protect uninterruptedly the vineyard planted by his hand. He sent laborers into it at the eleventh hour to cultivate it, and with their hoes and plowshares to uproot the thorns and thistles, as did Samgar when he killed 600 Philistines (Judges 3: 31). After the copious branches were pruned and the sucker roots with the briars were pulled out, this vineyard will produce a luscious, appetizing fruit, one capable of storage in the wine cellar of eternity, once purified in the wine-press of patience. Wickedness had indeed blazed like fire, and the human heart had grown cold, so as to destroy the wall surrounding this vineyard, just as the attacking Philistines were destroyed by the poison of worldly pleasures.

2. Behold how the Lord, when he destroyed the earth by water, saved the just man with a contemptible piece of wood (Wis. 10:4), did not allow the scepter of the ungodly to fall upon the lot of the just (Ps 124:3). Now, at the eleventh hour, he has called forth his servant, Blessed Francis, a man after his own heart (I Sam 13: 14). This man was a light, despised by the rich, nonetheless prepared for the appointed moment. Him the Lord sent into his vineyard to uproot the thorns and thistles. God cast down this lamp before the attacking Philistines, thus illumining his own land and with earnest exhortation warning it to be reconciled with God.

3. On hearing within his soul his friend's voice of invitation Francis without hesitation arose, and as another Samson strengthened by God's grace, shattered the fetters of a flattering world. Filled with the zeal of the Spirit and seizing the jawbone of an ass, he conquered not only a thousand, but many thousands of Philistines (Judges 15: 15-16) by his simple preaching, unadorned with the persuasive words of human wisdom (I Cor 1:17), and made forceful by the power of God, who chooses the weak of this world to confound the strong (I Cor 1:17). With the help of God he accomplished this: God who touches mountains and they smoke (Ps 103:32), so bringing to spiritual service those who were once slaves to the allurements of the flesh. For those who died to sin and live only for God and not for themselves (namely, whose worse part has died), there flowed from this jawbone an abundant stream of water: refreshing, cleansing, rendering fruitful the fallen, downtrodden and thirsty. This river of water reaching unto eternal life (Jn 7: 38), might be purchased without silver and without cost (Is 55:1), and like branches far and wide its rivulets watered the vineyard whose branches extended unto the sea and its boughs unto the river (Ps 79:12).

4. After the example of our father Abraham, this man forgot not only his country and acquaintances, but also his father's house, to go to a land which the Lord had shown him by divine inspiration (Gen 12). Pushing aside any obstacle he pressed on to win the prize of his heavenly call (Phil. 3:14). Conforming himself to Him (Rom 8:29) who, though rich, for our sake became poor (II Cor 8:9), he unburdened himself of a heavy load of material possessions so as to pass easily through the narrow gate (Mt 7:13). He disbursed his wealth to the poor, so that his justice might endure forever (Ps 111:9).

Nearing the land of vision he offered his own body as a holocaust to the Lord upon one of the mountains indicated to him (Gen 22:2), the mountain which is the excellence of faith. His flesh, which now and then had tricked him, he sacrificed as Jephte his only daughter (Judges 11:34), lighting under it the fire of love, punishing it with hunger, thirst, cold, nakedness and with many fasts and vigils. When it had been crucified with its vices and concupiscences (Gal 5:24), he could say with the Apostle: "I live now, not I, but Christ lives in me" (Gal 2:20). For he really did not live for himself any longer, but rather for Christ, who died for our sins and rose for our justification (Rom 4:25), that we might no longer be slaves to sin (Rom 6:6).

Uprooting his vices and like Jacob arising at the Lord's command (Gen 35:1-11) he renounced wife and farm and oxen and all which might distract those invited to the great feast (Lk 14:15-20), and took up the battle with the world, the flesh and the spiritual forces of wickedness on high. And as he had received the sevenfold grace of the Spirit and the help of the eight beatitudes of the Gospel, he journeyed to Bethel, the house of God, on a path which he had traced in the fifteen steps of the virtues mystically represented in the Psalter (gradual Psalms). After he had made of his heart an altar for the Lord, he offered upon it the incense of devout prayers to be taken up to the Lord at the hands of angels whose company he would soon join.

5. But that he might not be the only one to enjoy the blessings of the mountain, clinging exclusively to the embraces of Rachel, as it were to a life of contemplation lovely but sterile, he descended to the forbidden house of Leah to lead into the desert the flock fertile with twins (Cant 4:2) and seeking pastures of life Gen 29). There, where the manna of heavenly sweetness restores all who have been separated from the noisy world, he would be seated with the princes of his people and crowned with the crown of justice. Sowing his seed in tears, he would come back rejoicing carrying his sheaves to the storehouse of eternity (Ps 125:5-6).

Surely he sought not his own interests (Phil 2:21), but those of Christ, serving Him zealously like the proverbial bee. As the morning star in the midst of a cloud, and as the moon at the full (Eccles. 50,6), he took in his hands a lamp with which to draw the humble by the example of his glorious deeds, and a trumpet wherewith to recall the shameless with stern and fearsome warnings from their wicked abandon.

Thus strengthened by charity he courageously took possession of the Midianite camp (Judges 7:16-22), that is, the camp of those who contemptuously disregard the teaching of the Church, with the support of Him who encompassed the whole world by His authority, even while still cloistered in the Virgin's womb. He captured the weapons on which the well-armed man trusted while guarding his house and parceling out his spoils (Lk 11:21-22), and he led captivity captive in submission to Jesus Christ (Eph 4:8).

6. After defeating the threefold earthly enemy, he did violence to the kingdom of heaven and seized it by force (Mt 11:12). After many glorious battles in this life he triumphed over the world, and he who was knowingly unlettered and wisely foolish, happily returned to the Lord to take the first place before many others more learned.

7. Plainly a life such as his, so holy, so passionate, so brilliant, was enough to win him a place in the Church Triumphant. Yet, because the Church Militant, which can only observe the outer appearances, does not presume to judge on its own authority those not sharing its actual state, it proposes for veneration as Saints only those whose lives on earth merited such, especially because an angel of Satan sometimes transforms himself into an angel of light (II Cor 11:14). In his generosity the omnipotent and merciful God has provided that the aforementioned Servant of Christ did come and serve Him worthily and commendably. Not permitting so great a light to remain hidden under a bushel, but wishing to put it on a lampstand to console those dwelling in the house of light (Mt 5:15), God declared through many brilliant miracles that his life has been acceptable to God and his memory should be honored by the Church Militant.

8. Therefore, since the wondrous events of his glorious life are quite well known to us because of the great familiarity he had with us while we still occupied a lower rank, and since we are fully convinced by reliable witnesses of the many brilliant miracles, we and the flock entrusted to us, by the mercy of God, are confident of being assisted at his intercession and of having in heaven a patron whose friendship we enjoyed on earth. With the consultation and approval of our Brothers, we have decreed that he be enrolled in the catalogue of saints worthy of veneration.

9. We decree that his birth be celebrated worthily and solemnly by the universal Church on the fourth of October, the day on which he entered the kingdom of heaven, freed from the prison of the flesh.

10. Hence, in the Lord we beg, admonish and exhort all of you, we command you by this apostolic letter, that on this day reserved to honor his memory, you dedicate yourselves more intensely to the divine praises, and humbly to implore his patronage, so that through his intercession and merits you might be found worthy of joining his company with the help of Him who is blessed forever. Amen.

Given at Perugia, on the fourteenth calends of August, in the second year of our pontificate.

1 "Porziuncola" is also sometimes written as "Porzioncula," "Porziuncula," "Portiuncola," or "Portiuncula." Since the time of Pope Honorius III, a pilgrim can gain a plenary indulgence on August 2, the date of the Portiuncula's dedication, by visiting the chapel and making a good confession. This tradition is called "The Feast of Pardon."

2   There is a prayer commonly, but erroneously, attributed to St. Francis. Though it's a lovely prayer, it was written not by the Saint, but in 1912 by an unknown in France. As explained by the Franciscan Archive:

The first appearance of the Peace Prayer occurred in France in 1912 in a small spiritual magazine called La Clochette (The Little Bell). It was published in Paris by a Catholic association known as La Ligue de la Sainte-Messe (The Holy Mass League), founded in 1901 by a French priest, Father Esther Bouquerel (1855-1923). The prayer bore the title of 'Belle prière à faire pendant la messe' (A Beautiful Prayer to Say During the Mass), and was published anonymously. The author could possibly have been Father Bouquerel himself, but the identity of the author remains a mystery.

The text of the prayer in English and its original French, which, unlike the English version, also speaks of discord and unity, of error and Truth, and of finding by losing oneself:
Lord, make me an instrument of your peace.
Where there is hatred, let me sow love;
where there is injury,pardon;
where there is doubt, faith;
where there is despair, hope;
where there is darkness, light;
and where there is sadness, joy.

O Divine Master, grant that I may not so much seek
to be consoled as to console;
to be understood as to understand;
to be loved as to love.
For it is in giving that we receive;
it is in pardoning that we are pardoned;
and it is in dying that we are born to eternal life. Amen.
Seigneur, faites de moi un instrument de votre paix.
Là où il y a de la haine, que je mette l'amour.
Là où il y a l'offense, que je mette le pardon.
Là où il y a la discorde, que je mette l'union.
Là où il y a l'erreur, que je mette la vérité.
Là où il y a le doute, que je mette la foi.
Là où il y a le désespoir, que je mette l'espérance.
Là où il y a les ténèbres, que je mette votre lumière.
Là où il y a la tristesse, que je mette la joie.

Ô Maître, que je ne cherche pas tant
à être consolé qu'à consoler,
à être compris qu'à comprendre,
à être aimé qu'à aimer,
car c'est en donnant qu'on reçoit,
c'est en s'oubliant qu'on trouve,
c'est en pardonnant qu'on est pardonné,
c'est en mourant qu'on ressuscite à l'éternelle vie.

3 There's an old riddle -- "The Five Brethren of the Rose" -- that acts as a mnemonic device that helps one recognize dog roses:

Quinque sumus fratres, et eodem tempore nati,
Sunt duo barbati, duo sunt barba absque creati.
Unus et e quinque non est barbatus utrinque.
On a summer’s day, in sultry weather
Five brethren were born together.
Two had beards and two had none
And the other had but half a one.

This refers to the sepal pattern found on dog roses. Two of the five sepals are plain; two are jagged on both sides; and the fifth is jagged on one side. The riddle's been attributed to St. Albert Magnus.

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